The Bradbury Pound
The jews control the banks:
Throughout history of commerce jews have own all the gold houses mercantile houses and the banking houses World and International banks and are by some that a handful of jewish families own as much as sixty per cent of the wealth of all Nations. In the late early 19th century they even owned the Bank of England and all other European Banks. The Bank of England was founded as a private bank in 1694 to act as banker to the Crown – King William III’s war against France – a “banker to the crown” meant borrowing money – and winning a war one claimed all the “booty” and hence the King could pay back what he borrowed. To hedge their bets – i.e not lose any money the jews always backed both sides in any conflict and this struck people as immoral (as it does to this day) – especially in light of our Constitutional Law the Magna Carta.
The shift toward the use of these receipts as a means of payment took place in the mid-17th century, as the price revolution, when relatively rapid gold inflation, was causing a re-assessment of how money worked. The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor. This meant that the note could be used as currency based on the security of the goldsmith, not the account holder of the Goldsmith-banker. The bankers also began issuing a greater value of notes than the total value of their physical reserves in the form of loans, on the assumption that they would not have to redeem all of their issued banknotes at the same time. This pivotal shift changed the simple promissory note into an agency for the expansion of the monetary supply itself. As these receipts were increasingly used in the money circulation system, depositors began to ask for multiple receipts to be made out in smaller, fixed denominations for use as money. The receipts soon became a written order to pay the amount to whoever had possession of the note. These notes are credited as the first modern banknotes
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin’s value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes. The economist Nicholas Barbon wrote that money “was an imaginary value made by a law for the convenience of exchange.” A temporary experiment of banknote issue was carried out by Sir William Phips as the Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1690 to help fund the war effort against France.
Originally, the banknote was simply a promise to the bearer that he could redeem it for its value in specie, but in 1833 the second in a series of Bank Charter Acts established that banknotes would be considered as legal tender during peacetime. Until the mid-nineteenth century, commercial banks were able to issue their own banknotes, and notes issued by provincial banking companies were the common form of currency throughout England, outside London. The Bank Charter Act of 1844, which established the modern central bank, restricted authorisation to issue new banknotes to the Bank of England, which would henceforth have sole control of the money supply in 1921. At the same time, the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt. The Act gave the Bank of England an effective monopoly over the note Issue from 1928.
The creation of the private company of the Bank of England was in large part due to Sir William Paterson (April 1658 – 22 January 1719) was a Scottish trader and banker.
In our early history we just had silver and gold coins – no “bank notes” and banks were set up to make loans to the monarchy and the aristocracy. Even as late as 1928 no working people had a bank account. This new idea that money could just be bits of paper with a nominal value written on them – changed the whole way commerce – trade between individuals was undertaken. Banks realised they could make money out of nothing – simply lending notes and then getting the notes back with interest created a great deal of wealth and power.
The rise of the Industrial Revolution to modern day consumerism – and the fact that today 95 per cent of the population has a bank account – the banks have shifted their lending to lending us money – making them more money then any time in their history. Just as 300 years ago lending to monarchs in Europe they sold on your debt and backed both sides they do the same thing today – every bank sells your debt – be it a personal loan an overdraft a mortgage or a credit card – your debt is sold. If you have a large debt than that debt will be split – or sold on to others. Your debt is an “asset” your debt has financial worth. Insurance brokers take some of the risk by sharing that risk within those members of the “insurance house” and sell that “insurance” to other individuals or other insurance companies. They use your debt as their asset to finance – further credit debt.
Banks make money out of thin air. They also cause devaluation and inflation – the high rise in goods and services – and as a consequence much of the woe misery and suffering in the world today. So how did we get into this? Everyone enters into trade with someone else – either providing your labour your skills – or to purchase your daily needs. Tokens of value were exchanged – there was no single currency as we have now – all gold houses and banking houses issued their own tokens of “notes.” Our kings and Queens gave us coinage to facilitate trade between people.
But not all these “notes” were redeemable – fraud by jews and others was common-place A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument known as a promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by commercial banks, who were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender (usually gold or silver coin) when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank. Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks – to make money out of money – which has no relation to the real economy of trade between business and between peoples.
The jews own ALL the world and international banks – putting Nations and People in debt. They make money out of money – loans overdrafts mortgages credit cards and other fiscal instruments – Nations and people have to pay back the original sum and interest – thereby creating inflation and the devaluation of currencies and the money in your pocket. When you borrow money from a bank – that bank has no money to lend no real money. Let that sink in.
They sell your debt to some one else. So some financial institution buys your debt to the bank. In selling your debt – the bank makes money. And you pay the financial organisation – who may sell it on again and again. The Bank of England tells us that they create the 3 per cent of real money – that is real money in your pocket. The other 97 per cent is invented by jewish banks. UK Personal Debt. People in the UK owed £1.557 trillion at the end of September 2017 all this is not real wealth real money – it is created by the jew it is imaginary money.
n July 1914, as it became clear that a European war was on the cards, London, the world’s foremost international financial centre, suffered an acute financial crisis. The financial markets froze, shares crashed and depositors were unable to access their funds for days. The London Stock Exchange shut and stayed shut for five months. It was feared that a run on the banks had begun, threatening the country’s payments and credit mechanisms – and all as Britain teetered on the verge of war and then plunged into the Armageddon.
Despite its unrivalled severity, the financial crisis of 1914 is virtually unknown. The reason is straightforward – it is simply absent not only from general texts but also from most of the specialist literature. Several journalistic accounts appeared in 1915, but ever since it has been overlooked – until now, the 100th. anniversary. Breakdown Why? Well, presumably because the financial crisis was overshadowed by the diplomatic crisis and then the military conflict. The life and death struggle was more important and dramatic than the financial disintegration. Every political, social, cultural and economic dimension of life was in crisis in summer 1914: there was nothing especially notable about the financial sector being in trouble. Moreover, the crisis was effectively managed and, as it turned out, there was no headline-making casualty. There was no Barings or Lehman Brothers.
Nevertheless, it was the most severe systemic financial crisis that London has ever experienced. And not just London. Some 50 countries around the world had financial crises with runs on banks and stock market slumps. It was the most extensive and acute global financial crisis ever. n London, the foreign exchange and money markets broke down early in the week beginning Monday 27 July. Then on Friday 31 July, the London Stock Exchange, for the first time in its 117-year history, shut its doors. Displaced brokers and jobbers milled around in Throgmorton Street like “swarming ants around the destroyed heap”.
The English joint-stock banks, which included some of the world’s largest banks, became increasingly concerned about their vulnerability to a run on deposits. Their assets were becoming more and more illiquid, while their liabilities were mostly demand deposits. From Wednesday 29 July, the banks rationed payment to depositors of gold sovereigns, £1
gold coins that were the key circulating medium, and paid out instead in Bank of England £5 notes, the smallest denomination banknote. Since a £5 note was equivalent to around £400 in today’s money, it was useless for everyday transactions, so recipients made their way to the Bank of England to change their notes for sovereigns, as they were free to do under the classical gold standard. This resulted in long queues that presented the appearance of a run on the Bank. A Financial Times reporter found “…a queue of people, some 200 to 250 strong, resignedly awaiting their turn to obtain access to the magical counter where cash was being poured forth in a steady stream…”. “Gold, gold, gold, gold, light and yellow; hard and cold.”
Crisis management fell initially to the Bank of England, which lent liberally against assets
presented by banks. In accordance with the current doctrine of lender of last resort, it raised the bank rate from 3% to 4% and then to 8%. The Governor also asked the Prime Minister and Chancellor to suspend the Bank Act, which would allow the Bank to print more notes to relieve the pressure for liquidity from banks and businesses. The political authorities’ condition, based on past precedent, was a 10% bank rate. This was duly implemented – the highest rate in the world. The Governor was furious with the joint-stock banks for pulling their call loans to City firms, contrary to his request, to boost their liquidity. The central bank retaliated by limiting lending to the banks. As Europe went to war, the City went to war with itself.
The principal crisis containment measures, devised and introduced during the long bank
holiday, were the issuance of Treasury currency notes and a ‘general moratorium’. The Treasury notes were small denomination notes that were paper substitutes for the sovereign [£1] and half sovereign [50p] gold coins. Bearing the signature of Sir John Bradbury, the Permanent Secretary, they became known popularly known as ‘Bradburys’.
It is to be note that A key stimulus to the revival process was the beginning of usage by the state of the mechanisms of the City to finance the war. On 19 August, there was an auction of £15 million of Treasury bills. By the end of the year, there was £100 million outstanding and, in 1919, there was £1.2 billion outstanding. November 1914, while the Stock Exchange was still closed, saw the first War Loan bond issue. At £350 million, it was, Lloyd George proudly told the House of Commons, the world’s biggest ever fund-raising. However, due to various miscalculations, the issue was a fiasco, though this was kept from the public. Despite much arm-twisting of the banks, only £237 million of the loan was subscribed for, leaving a shortfall of £113 million – no less than £38 billion in today’s money. To disguise the failure, the Bank of England’s Chief Cashier and his deputy personally subscribed for the missing millions, being secretly provided with funds. It was, observed a senior official, “the Treasury’s blackest secret”.
To summarise – merchants and traders panicked about war and they wanted their wealth out of the banks – but the banks had no gold or silver to match demand and faced ruin – not good news for jewish bankers – the “Bank of England” a private jewish bank realised that to support all the other jewish banks they too would have no gold. Gold price shot up – and the bank withdrew from basing the value of the pound on gold. They (BoE) decided to issue small Treasury notes as a means of calming the market down.